Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Earl Grey.What Is It Really?

earl grey tea
Are you a tea lover?
There are countless tea varieties and flavors available worldwide, but one that has caught on extremely well over the past 150 years is Earl Grey.
The unique aroma of this tea is derived from oils of the rind of a bergamot orange. This a a highly fragrant orange available in China. How did a Chinese citrus get a very English name?
The Early Grey was the British prime minister in the 1830′s. His estate was one of the first to blend black tea leaves with bergamot, after receiving a gift from a diplomat that returned from China. The fragrant tea quickly rose in popularity and to this day enjoys worldwide success.  

Bergamot is a plant that produces a type of citrus fruit. Oil taken from the peel of the fruit is used to make medicine.

Some people treat a skin condition called psoriasis by applying bergamot oil directly to the skin and then shining long-wave ultraviolet (UV) light on the affected area. Bergamot oil is also applied to the skin (used topically) for a tumor caused by a fungal infection (mycosis fungoides) and for pigment loss (vitiligo). It is also used as an insecticide to protect the body against lice and other parasites.

Bergamot oil is sometimes inhaled (used as aromatherapy) to reduce anxiety duringradiation treatment.
In foods, bergamot oil is widely used as a
citrus flavoring agent, especially in gelatins
and puddings.

In manufacturing, bergamot oil is used in
perfumes, creams, lotions, soaps,
and suntan oils.

How does it work?

Bergamot oil has several active chemicals. 
These chemicals can make the skin 
sensitive to sunlight.

My Best to You, Dr. Kathleen Fuller  

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Is Organic Produce Healthier & Does it Really Matter to You?

Organic Lychee
Organic Lychee
The web is clicking with news of a recent meta-study that proves that organic produce is healthier than conventional. The study analyzed from over 300 peer-reviewed articles and found that:
  • Organic crops have lower pesticide residues (the frequency of pesticides in conventional foods was 4 times higher than in organic food)
  • Organic crops are higher in some antioxidants such as phenolic acids, flavanones, stilbenes, flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins. Antioxidants are linked to lower risks of cancer.
  • Organic crops had significantly lower levels of toxic cadmium compared to conventional crops.
So, the question is – should you switch to eating exclusively organic?
The answer is not that simple.  
Most people are not eating the right kind of food. Too much meat and fatty dairy, too little plants. Too many processed snacks, too little real foods. Refined sugars and flours instead of whole grains.
These modern eating habits have a much more profound effect on a person’s health than a decision to buy organic produce.
For the majority of the US population, going organic is like doing Algebra when you are still struggling with the multiplication table. I believe that to talk to someone you need to connect with where they are in their thinking and behavior.  So to reach the average America it starts with the basics of eating more vegetables and less junk food.
The organic movement is so important to me. I've been studying healthy eating and changing my diet since the early 1980's. It does matter: sustainability, animal welfare, reduction of pesticide and hormone use are all important on a regional, national, and global level.  Yet most people I meet do not have thirty years of experience with changing their way of eating or committing to a lifestyle change.   It takes time, knowledge and a desire to be healthier
It’s just that “organic word” sometimes blinds people as to what they can do to improve their diets. There’s a lot you can do to eat healthier, starting with conventional foods. For example, if you think you need more antioxidants – just eat more fruits and vegetables.
What to do at the supermarket:  
If you can afford organic produce, enjoy!
If not, don’t use that as an excuse not to buy conventionally grown fruits and vegetables.
If $10 can get you only 2 lbs. of organic produce, but 6 lbs. of conventional, you know what we recommend.
Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses – Journal of Nutrition – June 2014

My Best to You, Dr. Kathleen Fuller 

Monday, July 28, 2014

Body Image Slides by Harvard Women's Rugby Team+ JCPenny's New body Image Displays

Click the following link to see the Body Image slide show by the Harvard Womens' Rugby Team.  

JCPenney Finds A New Way To Address Body Image: Mannequins

The quintet doesn’t include retailers’ regular clothes hangers. According to, “The real life inspirations for the mannequins are: Dawna Callahan, who uses a wheelchair due to incomplete paralysis; Neil Duncan, a former Army paratrooper who lost parts of both of his legs in an explosion in Afghanistan; Ricardo Gil, who has dwarfism; Desiree Hunter, a 6-foot-1½-inch college basketball player; and Beth Ridgeway, who is plus-size.” They were installed as part of the brand’s “When it Fits, You Feel it” campaign. 

Debra Berman, senior vice president of marketing told Today, “We felt like this was a great opportunity to really make sure we were helping showcase the important subject of body image.” And, passersby appreciate the change of scenery. “I think it’s time that stores embrace the fact that we’re all different… We come in all different sizes, heights, weights,” one woman said. Plus, no merkins were needed for JCP’s rendition of The Real World: America. (

'We're all different': JCPenney shows unique mannequins in New York storefront

July 15, 2014 at 10:25 AM ETrest
We're not all a size 4! TODAY's "Love Your Selfie" mannequins featured in JCPenney's Manhattan store.
After only 24 hours on display, public reaction so far has been overwhelmingly positive.
"I think it's time that stores embrace the fact that we're all different," one woman shopper at JCPenney told TODAY. "We come in all different sizes, heights, weights." 
The mannequins are on display in JCPenney's Manhattan store through the end of August.
 My Best to You, Dr. Kathleen Fuller    

Sunday, July 27, 2014

How to Choose the Best Energy Bar

Edible Energy: Find the Right Bar for Your Need

 Energy Bars
You walk into your local grocery and see a sea of energy bars. Feeling somewhat overwhelmed by the plethora of health claims, you quickly buy an eye-catching bar with an appealing flavor. But did you really get the best bar for your health?
Before making a purchase, think about why you are eating that bar—additional protein, a handy snack or a mini-meal replacement following a workout? Do you feel that because you are, exercising or focusing on your health that energy bars are simply an easy snack solution? Whatever your reasoning, know that energy bars are not a necessary part of a healthy, balanced diet. Before you buy, remember these pros and cons:

There are a lot of reasons why energy bars are so popular. In general, energy bars:
  • Can help meet your energy (calorie) needs
  • May help meet your nutritional needs protein, carbohydrates and fat
  • May help to meet other nutritional needs depending on the added vitamins and minerals. Some nutrients that are often added include calcium, zinc, iron, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, folic acid, protein and fiber
  • Are portable, convenient and pre-packaged
  • May keep you out of dangerous areas such as the vending machine or fast food drive-thru
  • Can help ward off binge eating if you become excessively hungry
  • Have a long shelf life and don't require refrigeration.
Consider these downsides.
  • Excessive nutrients. Energy bars can contribute to an excessive intake of nutrients, especially if you are eating more than one bar daily, are already taking a multivitamin supplement or are eating other fortified (enriched) foods and beverages. The dangers of over-supplementation vary from minor intestinal discomfort (diarrhea and constipation) to liver disease, nerve damage or even death.
  • Excessive calories. If using too many, too often, energy bars may contribute to a high calorie intake, which can lead to weight gain.
  • Cost.  At $1 to $2 a bar, this convenience food can quickly become a major expense on your grocery bill.
  • Abdominal discomfort. Some energy bars (especially low-sugar, low-carb and high-fiber varieties) contain sugar alcohols and alternative fiber sources (inulin, chicory root); which can cause bloating, gas and diarrhea in some individuals. While these ingredients are safe to consume, check your individual tolerance.
  • Lack of data. There is very little research to support the actual need for energy bars. While many provide claims regarding weight loss, antioxidants and muscle building, they are not a magical food and should not be used as a constant replacement for whole foods in your diet.
  • Processing. Energy bars are a highly processed food, whereas whole, unprocessed foods should be the staples of a healthy diet.
  • Additives. Some energy bars contain additional herbal ingredients or weight-loss aids. There is no data to show that any of these are effective or beneficial to health. There are no standards regarding potency or safety or effectiveness in these supplemental ingredients—and many can result in medication interaction and possible dangerous side effects.
  • While no energy bar is perfect, do your homework to ensure the next bar you eat isn't just a glorified candy bar. Use the following criteria, based on your needs—meal replacement, afternoon snack or workout fuel. And above all, enjoy your energy bar! Find a flavor and consistency that you like. Make sure that your body tolerates the energy bar with no intestinal discomfort, especially if you plan to use the bar prior to an athletic event.

    Meal Replacement Bars
    When lunch is out of reach, an energy bar can be used on occasion. Adding a piece of fruit, some raw veggies and a serving of yogurt or milk can help round out this quick, on-the-go meal. Read the nutrition label to find a bar that contains the following nutritional metrics if replacing a meal:
    • About 200-300 calories
    • 3 grams of fiber or more
    • Less than 15 grams of sugar (To me 15 grams is a lot of sugar.)
    • No more than 30% of your RDA for vitamins and minerals
    • Approximately 20-40 grams carbohydrates10-23 grams protein and 10 grams of fat or less.

    Meal Replacement  BarWeightCaloriesCarbs


    Boost Nutrition Bar, chocolate50 g210 25 g12 g11 g7 g2 g



    Zing, almond blueberry50 g22023 g11 g11 g9 g6 g
    ZonePerfect, chocolate mint50 g210 24 g13 g14 g7 g3 g

    Workout Fuel

    Before hitting the gym or starting a long run, your body needs carbohydrates. It is best to avoid protein, fat, fiber and sugar alcohols, all of which can delay the emptying time of the stomach and slow digestion, causing cramps and sluggish energy levels. Energy bars are usually too high in protein, fat, fiber and possibly sugar alcohols to be used for pre-exercise nourishment. Instead, try another quick-digesting food source before exercising.
    Your Pre-Exercise Fluid Needs
    Being well-hydrated will make your exercise easier and more effective. Try to drink 16-20 ounces of water during the 1-2 hours before starting your workout.

    Your Pre-Exercise Meal or Snack
    News flash: Most of the fuel you use during exercise doesn’t come from the food you’ve recently eaten! It actually comes from the carbohydrates (called “glycogen”) and fat that’s stored in your muscles, liver, and fat cells. That’s enough to fuel 1-2 hours of very intense exercise or 3-4 hours of moderate intensity exercise.

    During your workout, energy bars are not an appropriate refueling choice because aerobic
    and high-intensity exercises require blood flow to the muscles, not to the stomach for the digestion of foods. After exercising for more than 60-90 minutes, consider a sports drink or sports gel to boost your energy levels, promote hydration and balance electrolytes in the body.

    Energy bars may work for low-intensity, very long-duration activities such as a long, slow hike or bike ride. (During lower-intensity exercise, less blood is diverted to the muscles.)

    After your exercise session, your body needs mostly carbohydrates (to replenish glycogen stores in the muscles), some protein (to help repair damaged muscle tissue) and a little fat (for cellular repair). Eating a "real" and complete meal is your best bet. But if you cannot eat a meal within two hours of working out, then an energy bar paired with a glass of water and a piece of fruit is a good option. Look for a meal replacement bar (see examples above) with at least 30 grams of carbohydrate, 10 grams (or more) of protein and 5-10 gram of fat.

    Bar None
    Don’t ever feel that you have to rely on energy bars to meet your calorie and nutritional needs. These snack ideas provide energy, nutrition and flavor in a convenient, budget-friendly package:
    • Fresh fruits: apples, oranges, pears, plums, grapes, bananas
    • Individually packaged fruit and applesauce cups
    • Yogurt
    • String cheese
    • Whole grain crackers (plain or with hummus, cheese or peanut butter)
    • Whole grain bagels
    • Whole grain muffins
    • Homemade trail mix
    • Homemade granola bar (See recipe below.)
    • Packaged granola bars
    • Carton of  low-fat milk, chocolate milk or juice
    • Graham crackers and peanut butter
    Homemade Granola Bars
    (makes 16 bars)
    3 tablespoons natural nut butter (almond, peanut, soy or sunflower)
    3 tablespoons honey
    4 tablespoons agave nectar (light or dark)
    1 teaspoon vanilla extract
    1 1/2 cups puffed wheat, rice or kamut
    1 1/2 cups old-fashioned oats
    1/2 cup Grape Nuts
    1/2 cup whole almonds, very coarsely chopped
    1/4 cup whole flaxseed
    1/4 cup sunflower seeds
    1/2 cup dried fruit (see Note)
    Note: Use any of the following dried fruits or a combination—apples, apricots, blueberries, cherries, raisins, cranberries, raisins.
    Preheat oven to 325 degrees. Line an 8-inch or 9-inch square baking pan with parchment paper, so that the paper overhangs on opposite sides (to make removing the bars easy).
    In a small saucepan, combine nut butter, honey, agave nectar, brown sugar and vanilla. Heat over medium-low, stirring frequently, until the brown sugar dissolves and the nut butter is incorporated smoothly into the mixture.
    In a large bowl, combine puffed wheat (or rice or kamut), oats, Grape Nuts, chopped almonds, flaxseed, sunflower seeds and dried fruit. Pour 1/2 of the warm honey mixture over the oat mixture and use a rubber spatula to combine. Pour the remaining honey mixture over the oat mixture and continue stirring with the spatula until the mixture is thoroughly blended. Pour the mixture into the prepared pan and use the spatula to press the mixture firmly.
    Bake for 20 to 25 minutes, until the granola bars are golden brown all over. Remove the pan from the oven and again use the rubber spatula to press down on the mixture. Let the bars cool completely in the pan, then use the overhanging parchment paper to lift them out of the pan. On a cutting board, use a sharp knife to cut 16 squares. Wrap and keep air-tight for a week. Granola bars can also be wrapped and stored in a plastic bag in the freezer for several months.
    Servings Per Recipe: 16
    Amount Per Serving 
    Calories: 160.2
    Fat6.1 g
    Cholesterol0.0 mg
    Sodium: 32.1 mg
    Carbs: 29.2 g
    Fiber3.8 g
    Protein4.3 g

     There certain things we can learn only by putting in our time.
                             Harold Klemp,
    How to Find God, Mahanta Transcripts, Book 2, page 151

    My Best to You, Dr. Kathleen Fuller   

Saturday, July 26, 2014

Could Panera Bread, Be Worse than a Big Mac?

Panera Bread - Mediterranean Veggie on Tomato Basil
Panera bread has an upscale image ( Interesting how advertizing can influence are perceptions.)that automatically translates in many people’s minds to healthy food. I want to open your minds by comparing a popular sandwich served at Panera with the icon of junk-food – the McDonald’s Big Mac.
Panera’s Mediterranean Veggie on Tomato Basil Sandwich, pictured above, seems like a really healthy food, but the nutrients and ingredients tell a different story. We don’t mind the 590 calories if this is your meal, but the sodium count is 'heart attack' high (60% of your entire day’s worth). While the protein count is nice – 22 grams, the carb load is very high, as refined flour has been used for the bread.  See the ingredient list:
XL Loaf (unbleached enriched wheat flour [flour, malted barley flour, niacin, reduced iron, thiamine mononitrate, riboflavin, folic acid], tomatoes, water, salt, crumb topping [sugar, enriched wheat flour {flour, malted barley flour, niacin, ferrous sulfate, thiamine mononitrate, riboflavin, folic acid}, palm oil, natural flavor, honey, salt, water, mono & diglycerides, polysorbate 60], garlic [garlic, water, phosphoric acid, and sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate added as preservative], yeast [yeast, sorbitan monostearate, ascorbic acid], basil), cilantro, jalapeno hummus (garbanzo beans (garbanzo beans, water,salt), water, tahini (ground sesame seeds), cilantro, canola and extra virgin olive oil blend, jalapenos (jalapenos, water, vinegar, salt), parsley, garlic, salt, roasted bell pepper powder (roasted bell peppers, potato maltodextrin, rice flour, roasted red bell pepper concentrate, sunflower oil, ascorbic acid and tocopherol as antioxidants, natural flavor), lemon juice concentrate, spice, stabilizer (tara gum, carrageenan), citric acid, phosphoric acid, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate as preservatives, malic acid, vinegar, natural flavor, spices, oil of lime), cucumber, tomatoes, peppadew (sweet piquante peppers, water, white sugar, vinegar, salt, ascorbic acid, calcium chloride), red onion, lettuce, feta cheese (pasteurized part-skim milk, cheese culture, salt, enzymes, powdered cellulose to prevent caking), salt, black pepper.
Oh, my?
Big Mac
McDonald’s classic Big Mac compared to Panera's sandwich. The burger will set you back 550 calories, slightly less than Panera’s sandwich (590). It has 25 grams of protein, a bit more than Panera’s 22 grams. It’s high in sodium – 970 mg, but this is 400mg less than Panera!
The ingredient list i=makes me shutter to read:
100% pure USDA inspected beef, no fillers, no extenders, Prepared with grill seasoning (salt, black pepper),Enriched flour (bleached wheat flour, malted barley flour, niacin, reduced iron, thiamin mononitrate, riboflavin, folic acid), water, high fructose corn syrup and/or sugar, soybean oil and/or canola oil, contains 2% or less of the following: salt, calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, wheat gluten, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, dough conditioners (may contain one or more of the following: sodium stearoyl lactylate, datem, ascorbic acid, azodicarbonamide, mono- and diglycerides, ethoxylated monoglycerides, monocalcium phosphate, enzymes, guar gum, calcium peroxide), calcium propionate and/or sodium propionate (preservatives), soy lecithin, sesame seed,Milk, water, milkfat, cheese culture, sodium citrate, salt, citric acid, sorbic acid (preservative), sodium phosphate, color added, lactic acid, acetic acid, enzymes, soy lecithin (added for slice separation),Soybean oil, pickle relish [diced pickles, high fructose corn syrup, sugar, vinegar, corn syrup, salt, calcium chloride, xanthan gum, potassium sorbate (preservative), spice extractives, polysorbate 80], distilled vinegar, water, egg yolks, high fructose corn syrup, onion powder, mustard seed, salt, spices, propylene glycol alginate, sodium benzoate (preservative), mustard bran, sugar, garlic powder, vegetable protein (hydrolyzed corn, soy and wheat), caramel color, extractives of paprika, soy lecithin, turmeric (color), calcium disodium EDTA (protect flavor),lettuce,Cucumbers, water, distilled vinegar, salt, calcium chloride, alum, potassium sorbate (preservative), natural flavors (plant source), polysorbate 80, extractives of turmeric (color).
Yes, the Big Mac has worse ingredients such as EDTA and azodicarbonamide, but both companies use mono and diglycerides and refined flour.
Panera wins by a small margin, but it is not a healthy sandwich. 
                                                                                        My Best to You, Dr. Kathleen Fuller
We human beings take ourselves so seriously.  
  We finally see that we are actually pretty 
   ridiculous in some of the things we do.
                   Hareold Klemp,
           The Drumbeat of Time,
Mahanta Transcripts, Book 10, page 153

Friday, July 25, 2014

Males Strive for Larger Bodies = Bigorexia

Anorexia sufferers believe that they are bigger than their actual size, bigorexia sufferers believe that they are smaller than their actual size.

Eating disorders are a stereotypically female condition, but with the global obsession on the ‘body beautiful’, more and more men are falling prey to this debilitating disease in their quest for the perfect male body.
Bigorexia, or reverse anorexia, is scientifically known as muscle dysmorphia and can best be described as an individual’s real or imagined perception of themselves being “small and skinny even if he/she is large and muscular” to the point that it causes significant emotional distress and impaired functioning in their psychosocial life[1].
In short, says clinical psychologist Linde Viviers, it’s the same distortion of body image from which anorexics suffer, but reversed. While anorexia sufferers believe that they are bigger than their actual size, bigorexia sufferers believe that they are smaller than their actual size.
Perfect physique
Viviers practices at the Akeso Crescent Clinic in Randburg, a specialist psychiatric clinic that focuses on eating disorders which has gained a reputation for being one of the country’s foremost treatment facilities.
“Usually sufferers are not underweight or frail, they are actually well-built with perfect physique, but innately they believe their muscles and body are inadequate and begin to adopt so-called bigorexic behaviour – over-exercising, extreme dieting and the use and abuse of supplements and possibly steroids,” says Viviers.
Although she has personally seen an increase in the incidence of bigorexia, official statistics are hard to come by primarily because the disorder has yet to be defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals. The controversy over the definition seems to stem from the fact that it could fall within the scope of at least three psychiatric disorders[2]:
-    Body Dysmorphic Disorder, as the patient becomes exceptionally preoccupied with specific parts of their bodies
-    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, due to the obsessive nature of the patient’s exercise routine, gym, thought rumination
-    Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified due to the patient’s acute awareness of dietary intake and preoccupation with bodily weight and shape
Lifestyle management
Despite this controversy, however, common consensus is that the disorder is on the rise, most likely due to the increased focus placed on the male form and appearance in modern society.
“While women have been judged by their appearance for decades, men have typically been judged by their achievements,” says Viviers.
But with the increased exposure of the so-called ideal male body through modern media, men are becoming more aware of their appearance, and are beginning to judge not only their peers – but also themselves – according to male supermodel standards.
Steve Mululu, owner of lifestyle management centre Dream Body Fitness has styled his centre around the concept "lifestyle management" as opposed to a gym. Although he recognises that his clientele might be focused on creating the so-called perfect body, Mululu ensures that they look after their bodies both inside and out.
“Biologically, it is only possible to put on 4-5kg of muscle weight each year; anything above that comes at a risk to your health,” he says, commenting on the tendency of those seeking a "quick muscle fix" to abuse supplements, and even delve into the murky – and dangerous – world of steroids.
“If you manipulate muscle growth unnaturally, your organs can’t keep up with your muscle grow rate – and that’s a recipe for disaster,” says Mululu.
Despite this, Mululu agrees there is an increased tendency towards men wanting to be "bigger", although he believes that this is most prevalent in teenagers and younger men, who tend to believe that an extra 5kg of muscle weight will gain them the love and attention that they crave.
Increasing levels of dissatisfaction
Although there are no official statistics on the incidence of bigorexia, a study that explored body satisfaction amongst South African school boys in 2009 seems to point to increasing levels of dissatisfaction: 28.5% of boys claimed to be dissatisfied with their overall weight, while 26% were specifically unhappy with their mid torso, and 19.5% with their upper torso.[4] In another study conducted in 2010, a massive 64% were dissatisfied with their arms, 61.3% with their chest and 54.5% with their legs.[5] This mirrors international studies, which revealed that four out of five British males surveyed were dissatisfied with the muscularity and leanness of their bodies.[6]
That said, it is important to draw a distinction between an unhealthy obsession with your body, and a healthy one. In this day and age when both men and women are increasingly health conscious, regular exercise and an awareness of healthy eating habits are the norm, not the exception. We should be wary of jumping to snap diagnoses, warns Viviers.
Mululu agrees that it’s too easy to judge people on appearance or lifestyle.
“If you want to maintain a certain level of health and body image, you need a system. For some people that means waking up every morning at 6am and going to the gym, and being aware of what they eat. Some might call that an obsession. I would call it a healthy routine,” he says.
The line between healthy and unhealthy routines appears to be a fine one, but Viviers says the symptomology for bigorexia is quite specific in that the distorted body image causes both emotional distress as well as impaired social functioning. Specifically, she says, bigorexia tends to describe a cluster of behaviours, which can include some or even all of the below:
-        Missing social interaction due to exercise program or fear of not being able to eat the right                food
-        Neglecting personal relationships due to time spend exercising and following eating plan
-       Working out even if injured
-        Never being satisfied with muscle mass
-        Maintaining an extreme workout program
-        Maintaining an excessive high protein diet
-        The excessive use of food supplements
-        Steroid abuse and often resorting to plastic surgery to achieve the perfect body
The risks
The risks of bigorexia are many and include injuries due to over-exercising; self-loathing or punishing behaviour due to an inability to achieve the goal of perfection; acute anxiety due to rigid exercise and eating regime; a lack of functional behaviour due to excessive focus on body, exercise and food; as well as the many health complications that arise from excessive supplement and steroid use.
Unfortunately, however, official diagnoses of bigorexia are few and far between, due not only to the fact that the disorder is made up of a variety of inter-related behaviours, but also due to a combination of societal factors led by the reality of the effort needed to attain a perfect body is often regarded as normal.
Sufferers also tend to visit general practitioners or sports practitioners complaining of bodily pain due to excessive workouts, instead of seeking psychiatric help. In addition, because body dysmorphia disorders are typically associated with women not men, those suffering from bigorexia tend to feel a "double stigma",[7] which tends to dissuade them from seeking professional help.
“Diagnoses should only be made by a professional,” Viviers warns.
Treatment plans would most likely consist of a combination of cognitive behaviour therapy to challenge distorted belief systems about the self and body, individual therapy to address any
specific psychological issues, and medication for depression and/or obsessive compulsive behaviour if it is evident.
“Unfortunately, because bigorexia has yet to be officially defined and classified, there is no official prognosis regarding recovery,” says Dr Viviers.
Mululu believes that education is key to combating this increasing trend: “Men need to understand that there is only so much that their bodies can do, and that when it comes to muscle, it’s not a one day game, it’s a lifestyle. If you rush into it, you will damage yourself. We need to start training for vitality, and not vanity,” he concludes.

        The only way to understand something 
      with your heart is to have the experience.
                                Harold Klemp
                   The Book of ECK Parables,
                           Volume 3, page 183

My Best to You, Dr. Kathleen Fuller

[1] Dalgliesh, J & Nutt, K (2013). Treating men with eating disorders in the NHS. Nursing Standard. Vol. 27 No. 35, pp42-46.
2 Murray, S & Touyz, S. (2012). Muscle dysmorphia: towards a diagnostic consensus. Austrailia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. Vol 47, No 3. Pp 206 -207.
3 Specter, S & Weiss, D (2014). Muscle dysmorphia: where body image obsession, compulsive exercise, disordered eating and substance abuse intersect in susceptible males. Eating disorders, addictions and substance use disorders (T.D Brewerton & A.B Dennis eds).
4 2009; cited in Martin, 2010
Martin, J. (2010). “Mirror, Mirror on the wall, whos the buffest of them all”: Traditional masculine role norms and body image discrepancy in Indian school going boys. Masters dissertation. University of KwaZulu Natal.
6 Dalgliesh, J & Nutt, K (2013). Treating men with eating disorders in the NHS. Nursing Standard. Vol. 27 No. 35, pp42-46.
Dalgliesh, J & Nutt, K (2013). Treating men with eating disorders in the NHS. Nursing Standard. Vol. 27 No. 35, pp42-46.